This poster was presented at the European Symposium of Poultry Nutrition which was held in Spain from 8-11 May 2017.
Chemical characterisation of an extract of Solanum glaucophyllum (SG) leaves affirmed the predominant presence of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3) glycosides. The compound 1-(ß-D-glucopyranosyl)-1?,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol was isolated for the first time from a natural source. Vitamin D activity of the extract was confirmed by the calcaemic properties shown in a quail eggshell bioassay. The results suggested a 1,25(OH)2D3 bioavailability of approximately 15%.
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NRC 1994 recommends for broiler chickens a cholecalciferol (VD3) supplementation of 5µg/kg feed. However, under industrial conditions a higher supplementation, often near or at the legal limit of 125 µg/kg, is used in order to avoid leg problems and ensure performance of today’s high producing breeds. VD3 as such is biologically not active, it needs 2 metabolic steps in liver and in kidney to the active form 1.25-dihydroxyvitaminD3 (1,25D3). Several publications proofed the superiority of 1,25D3 over its precursors in the prevention of leg weaknesses, as tibial dyschondroplasia, when applied directly (Edwards 1990, 2002 and Rennie 1995). A glycosylated form of 1,25D3 has recently become available for animal nutrition (Bachmann 2013). Purpose of the following study is to reveal the safety of the new product for chicken.
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This poster was presented at IPPE 2017:
High performing and fast growing broiler chickens often endure leg problems. In particular, when factors, as climate and feed are sub-optimal. Can addition of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-glycosides on top of usual vitamin D3 supplementation improve bone strength and animal health while still maintaining performance?
Vitamin D requires two metabolic steps to become biologically active. In a first step 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is formed, which acts as storage form. After a tightly controlled step in kidney the active metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is formed. Because kidney is the relevant metabolic organ for this conversion, 1,25(OH)2D3 needs to be supplemented in patients with kidney malfunction or kidney failure. Synthetic 1,25(OH)2D3 (calcitriol) has been available as a drug for decades. Due to its high potency and its kinetic profile (fast absorption and rapid elimination) its therapeutic windows has proven to be relatively narrow. A natural form of the active metabolite was identified in a few plants, such as Solanum glaucophyllum (SG) and suggested as alternative for animal and human health.
An extract of a SG variety bred for high and uniform level of glycosylated 1,25(OH)2D3 was chemically characterized. Among the typical pharmaceutically inactive plant components (carbohydrates 54.3%, protein 24.9%, minerals 17.1% and water 4.1%) high levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 and a unique flavonoid content was found (1.11 mg total quercetin/g extract) consisting exclusively of the quercetin glycosides hyperoside, isoquercetin, rutin and apinosylrutin. The molecular distribution of glycosyl moieties in 1,25(OH)2D3 extracted from SG as determined by gel permeation chromatography was found to be 1–10 hexose units per aglycone. 1,25(OH)2D3-1--glucopyranoside was identified in the SG extract, while a di- and triglycoside have been identified in SG by other groups.
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